How Vacuum Cleaner Works? Tips & Guide

You use the simplest of all suction systems, if you drink soda through a straw. Sucking the soda up creates a decrease in pressure between straw bottom and straw tip. The soda is forced up to the mouth with a greater fluid pressure at the bottom than at the end. − This is the same basic process at work in a vacuum cleaner, but it is a little more difficult to implement.

We’ll look inside a vacuum cleaner in this article to find out how it puts suction to work while sweeping up the dust and debris in your home. The basic vacuum cleaner design is incredibly simple, as we will see, but it relies on a host of physical principles to effectively clean.

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What is Required by Vacuum Cleaner to Work?

Here are important Vacuum Cleaner parts that are required by Vacuum Cleaners to work:


The easiest way to understand how vacuum cleaner can take out all the dust particles through a straw-like structure is when you imagine sitting in a coffee shop and sipping a soda or a coffee, the sucking motion produces a negative air pressure within the straw, this is created because the air pressure outside the straw is greater than the pressure within.

Similarly, a vacuum cleaner’s design technique works because the air pressure is generated in the vacuum cleaner through the pipe like structure and it takes out all the particles of dust in the air and collects them.

Motor Work

The vacuum cleaner has a built-in electric motor that helps to spin a ventilator, which in turn helps to suck out the particles of dust in the air. This engine is so strong that it allows the vacuum cleaner to carry tiny particles and force them out into a bag from the other side of the vacuum cleaner to generate a negative pressure.

People’s general thought is that with such pressure it could stop working in a few seconds, but as you can only push so much air into a confined space, that’s why it continues to work without making it stop. The vacuum cleaner has an exhaust port that helps to exhaust the air from the other side and allows the motor to work all through accurately and continuously.


When you are using an electric motor to go out on the other side in the dirt, that will not move through or get expelled from the other side, it can be very dangerous for people using the vacuum cleaner if they inhale the dust, it may cause dangerous disease and damage to the lungs.

Since all the particles are not contained in the container, the vacuum cleaner has the ability to pass through one filter called High-Efficiency Particulate Arresting (HEPA) filter to pass this air. This filter has the ability to remove nearly all the dust and only let out the breathable air.


If you found every vacuum cleaner’s power, it is actually determined not only by its motor’s strength, but also by the amount of intake port and the portion that collects dirt and dust. If the intake size is less than the suction capacity, then the vacuum cleaner works well, which means squeezing the small amount of air through a passage which makes the air move faster.

The vacuum cleaner operates on the concept of dust intake of smallest size, the greater the suction capacity is.

There are different types of vacuum cleaners available on the market these days with each of them working on the same principle of creating a negative pressure using the vacuum cleaner’s fan, sucking out the dust, cleaning the exhaust air, filtering the air and then releasing it, without causing any damage to the human body.

How Vacuum Cleaner Works?

It may look like a complicated machine, but in fact, the traditional vacuum cleaner consists of only six basic components:

  • An intake port, which may include a range of cleaning accessories
  • An exhaust port
  • An electric motor
  • A fan
  • A porous bag
  • A housing containing all the other components

When you plug the vacuum cleaner in and turn it on, this is what happens:

  • The engine is mounted on the fan, which has angled blades (like an aircraft propeller).
  • We push air into the exhaust port as the fan blades switch (check out How Airplanes Work and find out what causes this).
  • As air particles are forced forward, the particle density (and thus the air pressure) increases in front of the ventilator and decreases behind the fan.

This pressure drop behind the fan is just like the drop in the straw when you drink off your beverage. The pressure level in the area behind the ventilator drops below the pressure level outside the vacuum cleaner (the pressure from the ambient air). That creates suction inside the vacuum cleaner, a partial vacuum. The ambient air forces itself through the intake port into the vacuum cleaner, because the air pressure inside the vacuum cleaner is lower than the outside pressure.

There is a steady stream of air flowing through the intake port and out of the exhaust port as long as the fan is working and the passage through the vacuum cleaner remains open. Yet how does the dirt and debris from your carpet come from a moving stream of air? The main concept here is friction.

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Check Video for More Detailed Working of Vacuum Cleaner

I hope you get everything about the working principle of the vacuum cleaner. Let us know your reviews in a comment:)

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